A spline is a mechanical feature used to prevent rotation on a shaft. It consists of a series of ridges or teeth, known as external or male splines, on the shaft, and corresponding grooves or slots, known as internal or female splines, on the mating component. The two components fit together with the male splines meshing into the female splines to create a torque-transmitting connection. Splines are commonly used in gearboxes, transmissions, and other mechanical systems where torque needs to be transmitted between rotating shafts. They offer several advantages over other methods of power transmission, such as greater torque capacity, improved alignment, and reduced stress concentrations. Splines can be cut using a variety of methods, including broaching, hobbing, shaping, and milling. The type of spline used depends on factors such as the required torque capacity, speed, and accuracy of the system.

An internal spline